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FREEDOM 

FROM 

WAR 

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM 

FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE 

DISARMAMENT IN A PEACEFUL 

WORLD 




DEPARTMENT OF STATE 



Please Note 

Except for the addition of this notice, and the 
elimination of four unnecessary blank pages, this 
is an exact reproduction of State Department 
Publication No. 7277. Last reports from the 
Government Printing Office were that the original 
printing had been exhausted, and no indication 
was given of any intention of putting the booklet 
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We believe this document to be entirely too 
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As a public service, therefore, we have reprinted 
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Order from 

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DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 7277 

Disarmament Series S 

Released September 1961 

Office of Public Services 
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Qovemment Printing C 
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 15 cents 



Introduction 

The revolutionary development of modern weapons 
w^ithin a world divided by serious ideological differ- 
ences has produced a crisis in human history. In or- 
der to overcome the danger of nuclear war now 
confronting mankind, the United States has intro- 
duced at the Sixteenth General Assembly of the United 
Nations a Program for General and Complete Dis- 
armament in a Peaceful World. 

This new program provides for the progressive re- 
duction of the war-making capabilities of nations and 
the simultaneous strengthening of international insti- 
tutions to settle disputes and maintain the peace. It 
sets forth a series of comprehensive measures which 
can and should be taken in order to bring about a 
world in which there will be freedom from war and 
security for all states. It is based on three principles 
deemed essential to the achievement of practical prog- 
ress in the disarmament field : 

First, there must be immediate disarmament action: 

A strenuous and uninterrupted effort must be made 
toward the goal of general and complete disarma- 
ment; at the same time, it is important that specific 
measures be put into effect as soon as possible. 



Second, all disarmament obligations must be subject to 
effective international controls: 

The control organization must have the manpower, 
facihties, and effectiveness to assure that Umitations or 
reductions take place as agreed. It must also be able 
to certify to all states that retained forces and arma- 
ments do not exceed those permitted at any stage of 
the disarmament process. 

Third, adequate peace-keeping machinery must be 
established: 

There is an inseparable relationship between the 
scaling down of national armaments on the one hand 
and the building up of international peace-keeping 
machinery and institutions on the other. Nations are 
unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the 
absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legiti- 
mate interests. This can only be achieved through 
the progressive strengthening of international institu- 
tions under the United Nations and by creating a 
United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as 
the disarmament process proceeds. 



There follows a summary of the principal provisions 
of the United States Program for General and Com- 
plete Disarmament in a Peaceful World. The full 
text of the program is contained in an appendix to 
this pamphlet. 



FREEDOM FROM WAR 

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR 
GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARM- 
AMENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD 

Summary 

DISARMAMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 

The over-all goal of the United States is a free, 
secure, and peaceful world of independent states ad- 
hering to common standards of justice and interna- 
tional conduct and subjecting the use of force to the 
rule of law; a world which has achieved general and 
complete disarmament under effective international 
control; and a world in which adjustment to change 
takes place in accordance with the principles of the 
United Nations. 

In order to make possible the achievement of that 
goal, the program sets forth the following specific 
objectives toward which nations should direct their 
efforts: 

• The disbanding of all national armed forces and the 
prohibition of their reestablishment in any form what- 
soever other than those required to preserve internal 
order and for contributions to a United Nations Peace 
Force; 

• The elimination from national arsenals of all arma- 
ments, including all weapons of mass destruction and 



the means for their delivery, other than those required 
for a United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining 
internal order; 

• The institution of effective means for the enforce- 
ment of international agreements, for the settlement 
of disputes, and for the maintenance of peace in ac- 
cordance with the principles of the United Nations; 

• The establishment and effective operation of an Inter- 
national Disarmament Organization within the frame- 
work of the United Nations to insure compliance al 
all times with all disarmament obligations. 

TASK OF NEGOTIATING STATES 

The negotiating states are called upon to develop 
the program into a detailed plan for general and 
complete disarmament and to continue their efforts 
without interruption until the whole program has 
been achieved. To this end, they are to seek the 
widest possible area of agreement at the earliest pos- 
sible date. At the same time, and without preju- 
dice to progress on the disarmament program, they 
are to seek agreement on those immediate measure; 
that would contribute to the common security of na- 
tions and that could facilitate and form part of the 
total program. 

GOVERNING PRINCIPLES 

The program sets forth a series of general principle! 
to guide the negotiating states in their work. These 
make clear that: 



• As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations 
must be progressively strengthened in order to im- 
prove its capacity to assure international security and 
the peaceful settlement of disputes; 

• Disarmament must proceed as rapidly as possible, 
until it is completed, in stages containing balanced, 
phased, and safeguarded measures; 

• Each measure and stage should be carried out in an 
agreed period of time, with transition from one stage 
to the next to take place as soon as all measures in the 
preceding stage have been carried out and verified and 
as soon as necessary arrangements for verification of 
the next stage have been made ; 

• Inspection and verification must establish both that 
nations carry out scheduled limitations or reductions 
and that they do not retain armed forces and arma- 
ments in excess of those permitted at any stage of the 
disarmament process ; and 

• Disarmament must take place in a manner that will 
not affect adversely the security of any state. 

DISARMAMENT STAGES 

The program provides for progressive disarmament 
steps to take place in three stages and for the simulta- 
neous strengthening of international institutions. 

FIRST STAGE 

The first stage contains measures which would sig- 
nificantly reduce the capabilities of nations to wage 



aggressive war. Implementation of this stage would 
mean that: 
' The nuclear threat would be reduced: 

All states would have adhered to a treaty effec- 
tively prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons. 

The production of fissionable materials for use in 
weapons would be stopped and quantities of such 
materials from past production would be converted 
to non-weapons uses. 

States owning nuclear weapons would not relin- 
quish control of such weapons to any nation not 
owning them and would not transmit to any such 
nation information or material necessary for their 
manufacture. 

States not owning nuclear weapons would not 
manufacture them or attempt to obtain control of 
such weapons belonging to other states. 

A Commission of Experts would be established to 
report on the feasibility and means for the verified 
reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear 
weapons stockpiles. 

• Strategic delivery vehicles would be reduced: 

Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles d 
specified categories and weapons designed to coun- 
ter such vehicles would be reduced to agreed levels 
by equitable and balanced steps; their production 
would be discontinued or limited; their testing 
would be limited or halted. 



• Arms and armed forces would be reduced: 

The armed forces of the United States and the 
Soviet Union would be hmited to 2.1 miUion men 
each (with appropriate levels not exceeding that 
amount for other militarily significant states); 
levels of armaments would be correspondingly re- 
duced and their production would be limited. 

An Experts Commission would be established to 
examine and report on the feasibility and means of 
accomplishing verifiable reduction and eventual 
elimination of all chemical, biological and radio- 
logical weapons. 

• Peaceful use of outer space would be promoted: 

The placing in orbit or stationing in outer space 
of weapons capable of producing mass destruction 
would be prohibited. 

States would give advance notification of space 
vehicle and missile launchings. 

• U.N. peace-keeping powers would be strengthened: 

Measures would be taken to develop and 
strengthen United Nations arrangements for arbi- 
tration, for the development of international law, 
and for the establishment in Stage II of a permanent 
U.N. Peace Force. 



• 



An International Disarmament Organization would be 
established for effective verification of the disarmament 
program: 

Its functions would be expanded progressively as 
disarmament proceeds. 



It would certify to all states that agreed reduction 
have taken place and that retained forces and arma 
meats do not exceed permitted levels. 

It would determine the transition from one stag 
to the next. 

• States would be committed to other measures to reduc 
international tension and to protect against the chanc 
of war by accident, miscalculation, or surprise attacli 

States would be committed to refrain from th 
threat or use of any type of armed force contrary t 
the principles of the U.N. Charter and to refrai 
from indirect aggression and subversion against an 
country. 

A U.N. peace observation group would be avai 
able to investigate any situation which might cor 
stitute a threat to or breach of the peace. 

States would be committed to give advance notic 
of major military movements which might caus 
alarm; observation posts would be established t 
report on concentrations and movements of militar 
forces. 

SECOND STAGE 

The second stage contains a series of measures whic 
would bring within sight a world in which thei 
would be freedom from war. Implementation of a 
measures in the second stage would mean: 

• Further substantial reductions in the armed force 

armaments, and military establishments of state 
including strategic nuclear weapons delivery v 
hides and countering weapons; 



• 



Further development of methods for the peaceful set- 
tlement of disputes under the United Nations; 

Establishment of a permanent international peace 
force within the United Nations; 

Depending on the findings of an Experts Commission, 
a halt in the production of chemical, bacteriological, 
and radiological weapons and a reduction of existing 
stocks or their conversion to peaceful uses; 

On the basis of the findings of an Experts Commis- 
sion, a reduction of stocks of nuclear weapons; 

The dismantling or the conversion to peaceful uses of 
certain military bases and facilities wherever 
located; and 

The strengthening and enlargement of the Interna- 
tional Disarmament Organization to enable it to 
verify the steps taken in Stage II and to determine 
the transition to Stage III. 

THIRD STAGE 

During the third stage of the program, the states of 
the world, building on the experience and confidence 
gained in successfully implementing the measures of 
the first two stages, would take final steps toward the 
goal of a world in which : 

States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear 
armaments, and establishments required for the 
purpose of maintaining internal order; they would 
also support and provide agreed manpower for a 
U.N. Peace Force. 



The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed typ< 
and quantities of armaments, would be fully fun^ 
tioning. 

The manufacture of armaments would be prohibite 
except for those of agreed types and quantities I 
be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those require 
to maintain internal order. All other armamen 
would be destroyed or converted to peacefi 
purposes. 

The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Natior 
would be sufficiently strong and the obligations c 
all states under such arrangements sufficiently fai 
reaching as to assure peace and the just settlemer 
of differences in a disarmed world. 



10 



Appendix 



DECLARATION ON DISARMAMENT 

THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM FOR 
GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMA- 
MENT IN A PEACEFUL WORLD 



The Nations of the world, 

Conscious of the crisis in human history produced by the revo- 
lutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided 
by serious ideological differences; 

Determined to save present and succeeding gen«?rations from 
the scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of the arms race 
and to create conditions in which all peoples can strive freely and 
peacefully to fulfill their basic aspirations; 

Declare their goal to be: A free, secure, and peaceful world of 
independent states adhering to common standards of justice and 
international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule 
of law; a world where adjustment to change takes place in accord- 
ance with the principles of the United Nations; a world where 
there shall be a permanent state of general and complete disarma- 
ment under effective international control and where the resources 
of nations shall be devoted to man's material, cultural, and spir- 
itual advance; 

Set forth as the objectives of a program of general and complete 
disarmament in a peaceful world: 

(a) The disbanding of all national armed forces and the pro- 
hibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other 
than those required to preserve internal order and for contribu- 
tions to a United Nations Peace Force; 

11 



(b) The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, 
including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their 
delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace 
Force and for maintaining internal order; 

(c) The establishment and effective operation of an Interna- 
tional Disarmament Organization within the framework of the 
United Nations to ensure compliance at all times with all dis- 
armament obligations; 

(d) The institution of effective means for the enforcement of 
international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for 
the maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the 
United Nations. 

Call on the negotiating states: 

(a) To develop the outline program set forth below into an 
agreed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue 
their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been 
achieved; 

(b) To this end to seek to attain the widest possible area of 
agreement at the earliest possible date; 

(c) Also to seek — without prejudice to progress on the disarma- 
ment program — agreement on those immediate measures that 
would contribute to the common security of nations and that could 
facilitate and form a part of that program. 

Affirm that disarmament negotiations should be guided by the 
following principles: 

(a) Disarmament shall take place as rapidly as possible until 
it is completed in stages containing balanced, phased and safe- 
guarded measures, with each measure and stage to be carried out 
in an agreed period of time. 

(b) Compliance with all disarmament obligations shall be effec- 
tively verified from their entry into force. Verification arrange- 
ments shall be instituted progressively and in such a manner as to 
verify not only that agreed limitations or reductions take place 
but also that retained armed forces and armaments do not exceed 
agreed levels at any stage. 

(c) Disarmament shall take place in a manner that will not 

12 



affect adversely the security of any state, whether or not a party 
to an international agreement or treaty, 

(d) As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations shall 
be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to 
assure international security and the peaceful setdement of dif- 
ferences as well as to facilitate the development of international 
cooperation in common tasks for the benefit of mankind. 

(e) Transition from one stage of disarmament to the next shall 
take place as soon as all the measures in the preceding stage have 
been carried out and effective verification is continuing and as 
soon as the arrangements that have been agreed to be necessary 
for the next stage have been instituted. 

Agree upon the following outline program for achieving general 
and complete disarmament: 

STAGE I 

A. To Establish an International Disarmament Organiza- 
tion: 

(a) An International Disarmament Organization (IDO) shall 
be established within the framework of the United Nations upon 
entry into force of the agreement. Its functions shall be expanded 
progressively as required for the effective verification of the dis- 
armament program. 

(b) The IDO shall have: (i) a General Conference of all the 
parties; (2) a Commission consisting of representatives of all the 
major powers as permanent members and certain other states on a 
rotating basis; and (3) an Administrator who will adminbter the 
Organization subject to the direction of the Commission and who 
will have the authority, staff, and finances adequate to assure 
effective impartial implementation of the functions of the 
Organization. 

(c) The IDO shall: (i) ensure compliance with the obligations 
undertaken by verifying the execution of measures agreed upon; 
(2) assist the states in developing the details of agreed further 
verification and disarmament measures; (3) provide for the estab- 

13 



lishment of such bodies as may be necessary for working out the 
details of further measures provided for in the program and for 
such other expert study groups as may be required to give continu- 
ous study to the problems of disarmament; (4) receive reports on 
the progress of disarmament and verification arrangements and 
determine the transition from one stage to the next. 

B. To Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments: 

(a) Force levels shall be limited to 2.1 million each for the U.S. 
and U.S.S.R. and to appropriate levels not exceeding 2.1 million 
each for all other militarily significant states. Reductions to the 
agreed levels will proceed by equitable, proportionate, and verified 
steps. 

(b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be reduced 
by equitable and balanced steps. The reductions shall be accom- 
plished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the 
IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage I reduction 
process, the states party to the agreement have agreed that the 
armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the arma- 
ments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses. 

(c) The production of agreed types of armaments shall be 
limited. 

(d) A Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Experts Com- 
mission shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of 
examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accom- 
plishing the verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of CBR 
weapons stockpiles and the halting of their production. 

C. To Contain and Reduce the Nuclear Threat: 

(a) States that have not acceded to a treaty effectively prohib- 
iting the testing of nuclear weapons shall do so. 

(b) The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons 
shall be stopped. 

(c) Upon the cessation of production of fissionable materials 
for use in weapons, agreed initial quantities of fissionable ma- 
terials from past production shall be transferred to non-weapons 
purposes. 

14 



(d) Any fissionable materials transferred between countries for 
peaceful uses of nuclear energy shall be subject to appropriate 
safeguards to be developed in agreement with the IAEA. 

(e) States owning nuclear weapons shall not relinquish control 
of such weapons to any nation not owning them and shall not 
transmit to any such nation information or material necessary for 
their manufacture. States not owning nuclear weapons shall not 
manufacture such weapons, attempt to obtain control of such 
weapons belonging to other states, or seek or receive information 
or materials necessary for their manufacture. 

(f) A Nuclear Experts Commission consisting of representatives 
of the nuclear states shall be established within the IDO for the 
purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means 
for accomplishing the verified reduction and eventual elimination 
of nuclear weapons stockpiles. 

D. To Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles: 

(a) Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles in specified cate- 
gories and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such 
vehicles shall be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced 
steps. The reduction shall be accomplished in each step by trans- 
fers to depots supervised by the IDO of vehicles that are in excess 
of levels agreed upon for each step. At specified periods during 
the Stage I reduction process, the vehicles that have been placed 
under supervision of the IDO shall be destroyed or converted to 
peaceful uses. 

(b) Production of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons 
delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter 
such vehicles shall be discontinued or limited. 

(c) Testing of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons 
delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter 
such vehicles shall be limited or halted. 

E. To Promote the Peaceful Use of Outer Space: 

(a) The placing into orbit or stationing in outer space of 
weapons capable of producing mass destruction shall be prohibited. 

15 



(b) States shall give advance notification to participating states 
and to the IDO of launchings of space vehicles and missiles, to- 
gether with the track of the vehicle. 

F. To Reduce the Risks of War by Accident, Miscalculation, 
and Surprise Attack: 

(a) States shall give advance notification to the participating 
states and to the IDO of major military movements and maneuvers, 
on a scale as may be agreed, which might give rise to misinterpre- 
tation or -ause alarm and induce countermeasures. The notifica- 
tion shall include the geographic areas to be used and the nature, 
scale and time span of the event. 

(b) There shall be established observation posts at such loca- 
tions as major ports, railway centers, motor highways, and air bases 
to report on concentrations and movements of military forces. 

(c) There shall also be established such additional inspection 
arrangements to reduce the danger of surprise attack as may be 
agreed. 

(d) An international commission shall be established immedi- 
ately within the IDO to examine and make recommendations on 
the possibility of further measures to reduce the risks of nuclear 
war by accident, miscalculation, or failure of communication. 

G. To Keep the Peace: 

(a) States shall reaffirm their obligations ur.der the U.N. Charter 
to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force — 
including nuclear, conventional, or CBR — contrary to the prin- 
ciples of the U.N. Charter. 

(b) States shall agree to refrain from indirect aggression and 
subversion against any country. 

(c) States shall use all appropriate processes for the peaceful 
setdemcnt of disputes and shall seek within the United Nations 
further arrangements for the peaceful settlement of international 
disputes and for the codification and progressive development of 
international law. 

16 



(d) States shall develop arrangements in Stage I for the estab- 
lishment in Stage II of a U.N. Peace Force. 

(e) A U.N. peace observation group shall be staffed with a stand- 
ing cadre of observers who could be despatched to investigate any 
situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace. 

STAGE II 

A. International Disarmament Organization: 

The powers and responsibilities of the IDO shall be progres- 
sively enlarged in order to give it the capabilities to verify the 
measures undertaken in Stage II. 

B. To Further Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments: 

(a) Levels of forces for the U.S., U.S.S.R., and other militarily 
significant states shall be further reduced by substantial amounts 
to agreed levels in equitable and balanced steps. 

(b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be further 
reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be 
accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by 
the IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage II reduc- 
tion process, the parties have agreed that the armaments and 
armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots 
shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses. 

(c) There shall be further agreed restrictions on the production 
of armaments. 

(d) Agreed military bases and facilities wherever they are lo- 
cated shall be dismantled or converted to peaceful uses. 

(e) Depending upon the findings of the Experts Commission 
on CBR weapons, the production of CBR weapons shall be halted, 
existing stocks progressively reduced, and the resulting excess 
quantities destroyed or converted to peaceful uses. 

C To Further Reduce the Nuclear Threat: 

Stocks of nuclear weapons shall be progressively reduced to the 
minimum levels which can be agreed upon as a result of the find- 

17 



ings of the Nuclear Experts Commission; the resulting excess o 
fissionable material shall be transferred to peaceful purposes. 

D. To Further Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Deliver 
Vehicles: 

Further reductions in the stocks of strategic nuclear weapon 
delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counte 
such vehicles shall be carried out in accordance with the proceduri 
outlined in Stage I. 

E. To Keep the Peace: 

During Stage II, states shall develop further the peace-keepinj 
processes of the United Nations, to the end that the United Nation 
can eflfectively in Stage III deter or suppress any threat or use o 
force in violation of the purposes and principles of the Unitec 
Nations: 

(a) States shall agree upon strengthening the structure, author 
ity, and operation of the United Nations so as to assure that thi 
United Nations will be able effectively to protect states agains 
threats to or breaches of the peace. 

(b) The U.N. Peace Force shall be established and progressivel; 
strengthened. 

(c) States shall also agree upon further improvements and de 
velopments in rules of international conduct and in processes fo 
peaceful settlement of disputes and differences. 

STAGE III 

By the time Stage II has been completed, the confidence pro 
duced through a verified disarmament program, the acceptanc< 
of rules of peaceful international behavior, and the developmen 
of strengthened international peace-keeping processes within th( 
framework of the U.N. should have reached a point where the 
states of the world can move forward to Stage III. In Stage ir 
progressive controlled disarmament and continuously developing 
principles and procedures of international law would proceed t( 

18 



a point where no state would have the military power to challenge 
the progressively strengthened U.N. Peace Force and all interna- 
tiinal disputes would be settled according to the agreed principles 
of international conduct. 

The progressive steps to be taken during the final phase of the 
disarmament program would be directed toward the attainment 
of a world in which: 

(a) States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear arma- 
ments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining 
internal order; they would also support and provide agreed man- 
power for a U.N Peace Force. 

(b) The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and 
quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning. 

(c) The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except 
for those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. 
Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All 
other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful 
purposes. 

(d) The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would 
be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such 
arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the 
just settlement of differences in a disarmed world. 



19 

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE; I96I O — 609147